Thursday, April 28, 2011

Avon River, Christchurch Quake

National State of Emergency, Thurs 28.04.11. I felt crooked on my Avon River walk. Everything was crooked ~ river, houses, driveways, fences, pavements, footpaths, roads, drains, manholes, pipes, power poles.

Nine weeks post 22.02.11 quake, as I wanted to see riverside damage the magnitude 6.3 quake had done to bits of Avonside & Dallington suburbs, I revisited an Avon River walk I'd done 3 years ago beside 2 Avon River horseshoe bends. It was the last week of the National State of Emergency ending 30.04.11.

I walked downriver along Avonside Dr from Swanns Rd Bridge, near Avonside Girls High, to Gayhurst Rd Bridge, then returned upriver on the opposite bank along Dallington Tce & River Rd.

As Avonside GH was so damaged by the 22.02.11 quake, students & staff shared Burnside High School facilities, 2 school shifts, near our home. Traffic congestion increased on Greers Rd, Grahams Rd & Memorial Ave during school times.

As the 04.09.10 quake had damaged riverside & swamp suburbs, I'd already seen quake damage by Avon River & Heathcote River. The 22.02.11 quake made previous riverside & swamp damages worse. It confirmed wherever there was water, like rivers, streams, estuaries, swamps, underground rainwater, streams & springs, there was quake damage.

The latest quakes weren't the first to damage Christchurch. Victorian settlers had experienced quakes too. As they'd build Christchurch on Canterbury Plains swamps & along Avon River & Heathcote River, it was inevitable that later quakes would cause catastrophic damage.

Christchurch CBD, I'd already seen riverside quake damages: Fitzgerald Ave where the northbound road collapsed by an Avon Loop; Oxford Tce, off Kilmore St, where river banks had slumped & liquefaction & shaking had damaged houses in Avon Loop; Many CBD quake damaged bldgs & roads in zones 1, 2, 3, 4 & in the red zone, national state of emergency. All that underground water around Avon River bends, horseshoes, loops, swamps, was forced above ground by quakes with destructive liquefaction mud.

Although many riverside houses were Council red stickered, causing houses to be abandoned, some desperate, despairing people still lived in their quake trashed housing, 2 months post 22.02.11 quake & months before CERA red zoned the area. 

Notes I made while coolpixing:

Avonside Dr / Woodham Rd / Linwood Ave crossing: Part repairs to liquefactioned & burst water pipe & drain damaged crossing. Shingle repairs, no tar seal yet.

Images, quake damaged Avonside Dr:


28.04.11. Sept 4 & Feb 22 quakes, partly repaired Avonside Dr / Woodham Rd / Linwood Ave crossing, national state of emergency

Avonside Girls High School, Avonside Dr, closed, brick wall fallen on excavated footpath. Sewage stinking water leaked across Avonside Dr to Avon River. CONTAMINATED WATER signs were all along both Avon River banks. Quake cracked road.


28.04.11. Excavation & quake felled wall, Avonside Girls High, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake cracked Avonside Dr by Avonside Girls High, national state of emergency. Cracks due to lateral spreading


28.04.11. Contaminated Water sign, sewage polluted Avon River, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency

Environment Canterbury car parked on River Rd, person taking water sample from river. Orange digger parked on River Rd by Avon River bank.


28.04.11. Environment Canterbury person collecting sewage polluted, Avon River water samples, River Rd, opp Avonside Girls High, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Avonside Dr view of digger on River Rd, national state of emergency

Red tree feller machines, truck, chipper, log grab, yellow crane on opposite River Rd bank. Fellers had morning tea on the riverbank while feeding bread to ducks.


28.04.11. Avonside Dr view of tree feller machines on River Rd, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake cracked roadside, Avonside Dr, nr Swanns Rd Bridge, national state of emergency. Cracks due to lateral spreading

Swanns Rd Bridge / Colishaw St: Cracks at road joins. Several houses quake damaged both sides of Avon River. Portaloos on roadsides by damaged houses, all along both river banks. Thousands of portaloos all over Christchurch, sewage system - crap. Orange, road cones in Avon River, like poisoned goldfish, by storm water pipe.


28.04.11. Quake damaged houses, Avonside Dr, nr Swanns Rd Bridge, national state of emergency



28.04.11. Swanns Rd Bridge view of orange, plastic, road cones in Avon River, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr / Retreat Rd fork: More 22.02.11 quake damage since the 04.09.10 quake. Shingle road works. Council blue & white, fence cordoned, Residents Only sign, been there since the 04.09.10 quake. Broken storm water drain. CONTAMINATED WATER sign. Green, plastic sewage tank on opposite River Rd bank.


28.04.11. Sept 4 & Feb 22 quake damaged Avonside Dr / Retreat Rd fork, with portaloo & residents only sign, national state of emergency



28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged, fence cordoned drain & portaloo, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Avonside Dr view of Contaminated Water sign, sewage polluted Avon River & plastic, sewage tank on River Rd, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr / Monkton Pl corner: Pavement portaloo. Broken manhole raised above road. Thousands of drain manholes quake raised all over Christchurch. Road slumping all along Avonside Dr. 6 inches to 1 foot deep slumping to Bracken St junction. The slumping was due to Avon River bank lateral spreading.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake portaloo, cnr Avonside Dr / Monkton Pl, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake raised, part repaired, manhole, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake cracked & slumped Avonside Dr, national state of emergency


Avonside Dr / Bracken St junction: Pavement portaloo. Liquefaction silt. Quake damaged curb.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake portaloo, cnr Avonside Dr / Bracken St, national state of emergency


22.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged curb, cnr Avonside Dr / Bracken St, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr: River bank slumping, due to lateral spreading, 1 metre deep in places by Avon River bend. Quake damaged houses on river bend. Portaloo in garden. Broken concrete drain waterside.


28.04.11. Avonside Dr view of Feb 22 quake, sewage polluted Avon River & opp bank River Rd, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake slumped Avon River bank, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Old man & Feb 22 quake, plastic, sewage tank & quake tilted house, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr / Morris St crossing: Pavement portaloo. River bank slumping due to lateral spreading. Road shingle repairs. Roadside CONTAMINATED WATER sign & RECOVERING AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE sign.


28.04.11. Quake damaged house, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency



28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Avon River bank slumping due to lateral spreading, Avonside Dr, nr Morris St, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Health Warning Contaminated Water sign, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr, Avon River bank, a board was erected with CHRISTCHURCH EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE information. As the information was small print, detailed, just the headings read:

CHRISTCHURCH
EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE

RECOVERY AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE

PUBLIC HEALTH...
WELFARE CENTRES...
SUPPORT AND COUNSELLING SERVICES...
EMERGENCY FINANCIAL SUPPORT...
ACCOMMODATION...
FUEL / TRANSPORT / ROADS...
WATER...
TOILETS...
RUBBISH...
YOUR PROPERTY...
SCHOOLS...
MISSING PERSON INFORMATION...
HOME REPAIRS...
ANIMALS...

LOOK AFTER YOUR HEALTH, YOUR FAMILY
             FRIENDS AND NEIGHBOURS.
      STAY INFORMED AS BEST YOU CAN.
                         ASK FOR HELP.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Recovering after the Earthquake sign, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr / Robson Ave junction: Pavement portaloo. Canada Geese riverside. Mini stop bank construction on Avonside Dr, repairing road & river bank slumping.

Stop bank continued beside Avon River till Bowie Pl. I walked on top, part of the way, as riverside footpath tar seal was deeply quake cracked, buckled & crumpled. Better view too. Little traffic on Avonside Dr, cordoned with road cones. More pedestrians & joggers.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged Avonside Dr / Robson Ave junction & portaloo, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake cracked Avon River bank & a view of River Rd, opp bank, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Avon River stop bank, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr: Passed steel Medway St Footbridge over the Avon, 04.09.10 quake twisted, 22.02.11 quake, worse, bridge almost fallen off one bridge support.


28.04.11. Sept 4 & Feb 22 quake destroyed, metal Medway St Footbridge over Avon River, between Avonside Dr & River Rd, national state of emergency




28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged housing, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency



28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged Avonside Dr & portaloos. Avon River stopbank left, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged Avonside Dr & Avon River stopbank, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr: Passed more quake damaged houses. Red stickered houses closed, some abandoned, long grass in gardens.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged Avonside Dr, house & portaloo, national state of emergency


Avonside Dr / Galbraith Ave junction: Curb damaged, shingle road repairs. Fulton Hogan road sweeper truck passed. Two more quake damaged houses on corner.


28.04.11. Sweeper truck, Feb 22 quake damaged Avonside Dr / Galbraith Ave cnr, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged house, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency



28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, plastic, sewage tank by quake damaged house, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr: Bend in Avon River. Yellow water pump on Dallington Tce, opposite bank, fence cordoned, been pumping since the 04.09.10 quake. Quake tilted concrete drain on riverbank, fence cordoned.


28.04.11. Avon River stop bank view of Feb 22 quake cracked riverbank & footpath, national state of emergency. River Rd / Dallington Tce cnr beyond


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Avon River stop bank & quake damaged Avonside Dr, national state of emergency



28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Avonside Dr view of Avon River bend & cnr River Rd / Dallington Tce, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Avonside Dr view of Sept 4 & Feb 22 quake pump by Avon River, Dallington Tce, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged manhole, Avon River bend, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake tilted, double storey house, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency




28.04.11. Feb 22 quake cracked, Avon River footpath, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency. Cracks due to river bank lateral spreading


28.04.11. Avon River stop bank view of Feb 22 quake damaged house, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency





Avonside Dr: More red stickered, quake damaged houses by stop bank, some tilted at odd angles, had to look closely to see tilting, or quake warping, or quake bending of houses. Portalooland. Portaloo at another Robson Ave junction.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Avon River stop bank view of portaloo & concrete block supported power pole, cnr Avonside Dr / Robson Ave, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Engineers, Feb 22 quake damaged footpath by Avon River, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency



28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Avon River stop bank & fence cordon, cnr Avonside Dr / Robson Ave, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr: Big concrete drain, 04.09.10 quake tilted, 22.02.11 quake messed. Quake abandoned houses nearby.


28.04.11. Quake tilted, double storey house, quake damaged Avonside Dr, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Sept 4 & Feb 22 quake pump in middle of Avonside Dr, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Sept 4 quake tilted drain, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency


Avonside Dr / another Morris St junction: Pavement portaloo. Red plastic sewage pipe pumped sludge. Fence cordoned drain in middle of Avonside Dr, pipes into drain, like that since the 04.09.10 quake. Council would need years to sort out the sewage system mess. Sewage stink by pipes. More quake damaged houses.


28.04.11. Sept 4 & Feb 22 quake damaged road & house, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency




28.04.11. Sept 4 & Feb 22 quakes, portaloo & plastic, sewage tank, road & sewage damage, Avonside Dr / Morris St junction, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr / Bowie Pl junction: Another damaged roadside / riverside drain. Pavement portaloo. Big shingle heap roadside. Shingle repairs to road. Sewage stink. Creamy, brown pollution trickled into Avon River by broken, storm water pipe, duck swimming by. Stop bank ended beyond Bowie Pl.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged road & drain, Avonside Dr, nr Bowie Pl, national state of emergency



28.04.11. Feb 22 quake pollution, broken drain, Avonside Dr, nr Bowie Pl, national state of emergency. Dallington Tce opp bank


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged road, tilted house & jogger, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency

Bowie Pl: Ghost land. Eight blocks of boarded Council flats, 4 flats / block, 32 flats abandoned. Heavily liquefactioned by 04.09.10 quake, silt volcanoes everywhere. Still abandoned post 22.02.11 quake. Yellow stickered. Footprints in liquefaction silt. Fallen Royal Gala apples on silt volcano by flat 32. Picked an unblemished apple for lunch - sour.

Sixteen months post 22.02.11 quake, Bowie Pl, Council flats were still yellow stickered, boarded, closed. Many looked inhabitable. What a waste!

Images, quake damaged Bowie Pl:


28.04.11. Sept 4 quake & Feb 22 quake liquefactioned flats, Bowie Pl, national state of emergency



Images, quake damaged Avonside Dr:

28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Avonside Dr repairs by Bowie Pl, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, a little crooked house, Avonside Dr, nr Bowie Pl, national state of emergency


28.04.11. End of Avon River stop bank, Avonside Dr, nr Bowie Pl, national state of emergency

Avonside Dr, near Gayhurst Rd Bridge: Another Avon River bend, more damaged houses. Group booze up on riverbank. Poplar & oak autumn leaves on riverside, quake cracked footpath to Gayhurst Rd Bridge. Orange, Hi Vis vested workman installed a new, metal chimney on an Avonside Dr house. What a waste, as CERA would soon red zone the area.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, new chimney, Avonside Dr, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged footpath, Avon River, nr Gayhurst Rd Bridge, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Contaminated Water sign, Avonside Dr, nr Gayhurst Rd Bridge, national state of emergency

Quake damaged Takeaways Fish n Chips shop, Gloucester St near bridge. Road damage at Gloucester St / Gayhurst Rd Bridge abutment join.

Images, quake damaged Gayhurst Rd Bridge:


28.04.11. Quake damaged Fish n Chips shop, Gloucester St, nr Gayhurst Rd Bridge, national state of emergency

Cnr Gayhurst Rd Bridge / Dallington Tce: Quake damaged concrete abutment at road join. Plastic, sand bags in river water. More poisoned goldfish, road cones below bridge.


28.04.11. Gayhurst Rd Bridge view of autumn trees by sewage polluted Avon River, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged Gayhurst Rd Bridge abutment join, cnr Gayhurst Rd / Dallington Tce, national state of emergency



Images, quake damaged Dallington Tce:

28.04.11. Avon River stop bank, quake damaged Dallington Tce, national state of emergency


Dallington Tce: 04.09.10 quake damaged, 22.02.11 quake damaged. Shingle road repairs. Mini stop bank at river bend, white plastic sandbags on part of the stop bank. Quake damaged houses, 1 house demolition site. Pavement portaloo & plastic sewage tank by back gate of 04.09.10 quake destroyed St Paul's School.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake toppled garden wall, Dallington Tce, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Quake damaged driveway, Dallington Tce, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Quake damaged house & house demolition site, Dallington Tce, national state of emergency

Dallington Tce: Three orange, Hi Vis vested workmen chatted by a digger at a roadside excavation & shingle road works. Blonde female engineer arrived, yellow, Hi Vis vested. She'd followed me along Avonside Dr in her Council ute, while supervising road workmen.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, plastic, sewage tank & portaloo, Dallington Tce, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, roadside excavation, Dallington Tce, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Sept 4 quake, fence cordoned, road excavation & roadside pump, Dallington Tce, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Sept 4 & Feb 22 quake road repairs & portaloo, Dallington Tce, national state of emergency

Dallington Tce: Post 04.09.10 quake & Boxing Day quake, yellow riverside pump still pumped sludge. Liquefaction silted footpath & autumn leaves. River bend slumping was filled with soil, opposite 04.09.10 quake tilted, concrete drain on Avonside Dr bank. Muddy sludge on river bend was there for months since 04.09.10 quake. Portaloos & green, plastic, sewage tank on footpath.

Later low lying Dallington Tce near Gayhurst Rd Bridge would be red zoned, but higher ground on Dallington Tce would be green zoned by CERA. That pattern was repeated along riverbanks - low lying land was liquefactioned & later red zoned, higher land was less liquefactioned & was green zoned by CERA. Unfortunately most of Avon River banks were low lying & slumped even more in the quakes, so most housing near Avon River banks was red zoned by CERA - from city to sea.

Thus most of Avonside Dr & River Rd housing & some Dallingrton Tce housing would be red zoned by CERA. There were more riverside roads, like Locksley Ave & New Brighton Rd by Avon River. Housing there too would be largely red zoned by CERA. Closer to the Pacific, by Avon / Heathcote Estuary, there were more roads in Bexley & Southshore due for red zoning by CERA. In future I'd visit the lot. About 7 500 houses along riverbanks would be red zoned by CERA, due for housing demolitions. A massive land grab by NZ govt / CERA.


28.04.11. Dallington Tce view of sewage polluted Avon River & Sept 4 quake damaged drain on Avonside Dr bank, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged house, Dallington Tce, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Dallington Tce view of Avonside Dr stop bank & quake damaged house, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Dallington Tce view of sewage polluted Avon River, quake crooked drain & Avonside Dr stop bank, national state of emergency

Dallington Tce / River Rd junction at river bend: Passed 04.09.10 quake roadside pump, pumping polluted water into Avon River. Ubiquitous CONTAMINATED WATER signs on riverbank. Gulls on footbridge at river bend & concrete storm water drains.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, Contaminated Water sign on footbridge by Avon River bend, cnr Dallington Tce / River Rd, national state of emergency

Images, quake damaged River Rd:


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, River Rd view of sewage polluted Avon River bend, national state of emergency. Dallington Tce beyond, Avonside Dr right

River Rd: Pavement portaloos & quake damaged houses, some abandoned. Blue water pipe along crumpled footpath, undulating over quake cracks. Like Avonside Dr, some River Rd mature trees were red DANGER taped, ready for chopping.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake tilted house, River Rd, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, River Rd view of autumn trees by sewage polluted Avon River, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Portaloo by Feb 22 quake damaged house, River Rd, national state of emergency


28.04.11. A little crooked house, Feb 22 quake damaged, River Rd, national state of emergency


River Rd / Medway St junction: Back at quake trashed, steel footbridge over Avon River. SLOW DOWN! 10 NO RUBBERNECKERS sign on corner. Homemade road signs had sprouted all over Christchurch, irate citizens warning road users of dangers, or irritations.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake, SLOW DOWN sign, River Rd / Medway St junction, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Sept 4 & Feb 22 quake destroyed, steel Medway St Footbridge over Avon River, between River Rd & Avonside Dr, national state of emergency. The bridge was later removed for storage at Ferrymead Heritage Park


River Rd / North Avon Rd junction: NO THROUGH ROUTE ACCESS TO PROPERTIES ONLY sign.


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged, semi detached houses, River Rd, national state of emergency



28.04.11. River Rd / North Avon Rd junction, residents only sign, national state of emergency

River Rd / Lois Pl junction: 04.09.10 quake & 22.02.11 quake damaged houses, liquefaction silted. Sewage tanker pumped in a garden. Riverside, tilted concrete drain more damaged by 22.02.11 quake, new cracks. Metre wide, riverbank crack by drain. Sewage stink by drain outlet into Avon River.


28.04.11. Sept 4 & Feb 22 quake damaged drain, River Rd / Lois Pl junction, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake tilted power pole & quake damaged house, River Rd / Lois Pl junction, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged house, River Rd / Lois Pl junction, national state of emergency




River Rd near Swanns Rd Bridge: Huge riverside slumping, some road cracks 2 metres wide. Quake buckled, concrete curb. Concrete, curb arch formed by 22.02.11 quake. Several quake damaged, red stickered, abandoned houses along the riverside.


28.04.11. Blue, water pipe to a Feb 22 quake damaged, double storey house, River Rd, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Post Feb 22 quake, blue, water pipe, River Rd pavement, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Concrete curb arch formed by Feb 22 quake, River Rd, national state of emergency






28.04.11. Red stickered, Feb 22 quake damaged house, River Rd, national state of emergency



28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged, double storey house, River Rd, national state of emergency





28.04.11 Feb 22 quake cracked River Rd & Avon River bank slumping, national state of emergency







28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged house, River Rd, nr Swanns Rd Bridge, national state of emergency

Images, quake damaged Avonside Dr:

28.04.11. Feb 22 quake damaged houses, Avonside Dr, nr Swanns Rd Bridge, national state of emergency




After wandering past so many abandoned, ghost houses, I was spooked. Pre quakes, 8 months ago, riversides were humming with life. In 2 years time, most of the houses would be gone, red zoned & demolished by CERA.

Avonside Dr: Watched workmen felling a poplar on River Rd. One feller up the tree, sawing & slinging branches; yellow crane hoisting chained branches; supervisor on road; workman sawing logs; red grabber machine feeding branches into red chipper; red, wood-chip truck behind.

Over 8 months, after several major quakes & 1 000s of aftershocks, the poplar didn't look dangerous to me. Old man on a sunny bench enjoyed the show too.

Images, quake damaged River Rd:


28.04.11. Feb 22 quake tilted, power poles & tree feller crane, River Rd, national state of emergency


28.04.11. Avonside Dr view of poplar fell, River Rd, national state of emergency





01.05.11. The National State of Emergency was lifted. CERA would do Christchurch recovery work. About time, as it was nearly 8 months post 04.09.10 quake & over 2 months post 22.02.11 quake.

Coda: After doing CERA Landcheck searches, I found all the little roads & housing in the two Avon River horseshoe bends I'd walked were mostly red zoned. Bigger roads like Avonside Dr, Retreat Rd, River Rd, Gayhurst Rd, Dallington Tce were a mix of orange, red & green zoning, but still mainly red zoned.

In other words, a mass exodus & mass housing demolitions in Avon River horseshoe bends would happen. Moral: Don't build or buy in riverside horseshoe bends in a quake zone. Disturbing was NZ govt's land grab in the form of CERA forced offers for govt, red zoned, riverside land  - Accept our govt offer & go, or your water, sewage, rubbish, electricity & road services would be cut off! The threat to cut of services was later denied by CERA.

Landcheck website neatly listed all red zone properties: An open invitation for looters to help themselves. Later CERA absorbed the Landcheck website into its own website, obviating some thieving. But looting, arson, vagrancy & tagging would be ongoing problems for CERA acquired, red zone housing, before final demolitions.

Despite liquefaction being a known hazard, regarding protecting home owners & buyers in new housing developments since 1991, from earthquake hazards in liquefaction areas, the Resource Management Act, RMA was vague, causing RMA to be revised by NZ govt.

Content & pics Copyright Mark JS Esslemont.

See CERA, Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority.

See Changes proposed to RMA following earthquake report.